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Haut Potentiel et addictions

Anne-MarieCG

4,329 views

De nombreuses études ont déjà été conduites sur les addictions chez les hauts potentiels, la plupart d'entre elles portant sur l'alcool.

Une équipe britannique vient de publier dans J Epidemiol Community Health un article portant sur une cohorte importante concernant les liens entre Haut Potentiel Intellectuel dans l'enfance (à 5 et 10 ans) et le développement d'une addiction à des drogues illégales à l'âge adulte. Ils concluent que le haut potentiel augmente le risque de dépendance à la drogue à l'âge adulte.

Intelligence across childhood in relation to illegal drug use in adulthood: 1970 British Cohort Study

James White1, G David Batty2

J Epidemiol Community Health doi:10.1136/jech-2011-200252

Abstract

Background Recent reports have linked high childhood IQ scores with excess alcohol intake and alcohol dependency in adult life, but the relationship with illegal drug use in later life is relatively unknown.

Methods The authors used data from a large population-based birth cohort (1970 British Cohort Study) with measures of lifetime cannabis and cocaine use, parental social class and psychological distress at 16 years; cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy and polydrug use (more than three drugs) in the past 12 months; and social class, educational attainment and gross monthly income at 30 years. All members of the cohort with IQ scores at 5 or 10 years were eligible to be included in the analyses.

Results Of the 11 603 (at 5 years) and 11 397 (at 10 years) cohort members eligible, 7904 (68.1%) and 7946 (69.7%) were included in the analyses. IQ scores at 5 years were positively associated with cannabis (OR (bottom vs top tertile) =2.25, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.97) and cocaine use (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.92) in women and with amphetamines (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.06), ecstasy (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.36) and polydrug use (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26) in men at 30 years. IQ scores at 10 years were positively associated with cannabis, cocaine (only at 30 years), ecstasy, amphetamine and polydrug use. Associations were stronger in women than in men and were independent from psychological distress in adolescence and life-course socioeconomic position.

Conclusion High childhood IQ may increase the risk of illegal drug use in adolescence and adulthood.

Parallèlement, on constate une recrudescence d'internements psychiatriques d’EHP pour des épisodes délirants de type schizophrénique consécutifs à la prise de cannabis. Une équipe suisse (Leonhard & Brugger*) avait montré dès 1998 une association significative entre les syndromes schizophréniques et l’absence d’une dominance hémisphérique gauche pour le langage. Il s'agit là d'une particularité fréquemment observée chez les EHP ayant souvent un sur-engagement hémisphérique droit, ce qui pourrait les prédisposer à des épisodes délirants.

Le risque accru de dépendance à une drogue s'associant à l'organisation cérébrale atypique pourrait induire une plus forte proportion de bouffées psychotiques de type schizophrénique chez les HP.

*Leonhard, D. & Brugger, P. (1998). Creative, paranormal, and delusional thought : a consequence of right hemisphere semantic activation ? Neuropsychiatry, neuropsychology, And Behavioral Neurology, 11 : 177-183.



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